Rendering to Texture

Happy 2017! I know, it’s almost February, but better late than never, right?

[EDIT: I was so excited that this demo actually worked that I didn’t even realized this wasn’t the first post of the year]

Anyway, I just finished this demo and I wanted to share it with you. Simply put, I’m rendering lots of characters on screen using the impostor technique, which relies on rendering a single model in an offscreen buffer. Then, multiple quads are drawn using the output of that buffer as texture.

Et voilá!

In order to achieve this goal, I had to make some changes in how scenes are rendered (is this the first refactor of the year? No). Since we’re using multiple cameras, we needed a way to define which one is the main one (we cannot rely on the Simulation to that for us any longer). Also, a new render pass is required to draw the model on a texture. And so the OffscreenRenderPass (were you expecting something else?) was born. But that’s pretty much it.

As usual, this is a new feature and therefore… unstable. Do not try it at home (yet).

Bye!

 

Color masks and occluders

One of the newest features that will be included in the next major release for Crimild (coming soon) is the support for color masks and invisible occluders for our scenes.

Occluders are objects that block the visibility path, fully or partially hiding whatever is beyond them. An invisible occluder behaves in the same way, and while the object itself is not drawn it still prevents objects behind it to be rendered.

For example, in the following scene the teapot (in yellow) is an occluder. Other objects are orbiting around it and the scene is rendered normally.

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Original scene with color mask enabled for all channels

By playing around with the color mask and turning it off for all channels we can avoid the teapot itself for being drawn, yet it still blocks the objects that are passing behind it. The green plane is not being affected by this behavior (that’s on purpose).

The effect is a pretty cool one and has a lot of applications in games and simulations. It’s specially useful in augmented reality to mix real-life objects with virtual ones.

 

I spent a weekend with a path tracer

This is definitely not how I was planning to spending my weekend (don’t get me wrong, I was going to work on some other things. What else would I do? Go outside and play with the other kids?)

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It was Friday evening and I was doing a mandatory email check before leaving work when I saw it: one email from Amazon with some book recommendations, including the following one:

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Go ahead, click the image and check out the book. I’ll wait

The goal of this book by Peter Shirley is to implement a basic path tracer in C++ in just a couple of days. I didn’t pay too much attention at the moment, other than it was quite cheap and got several goods reviews. But it stuck in my head for the rest of the night and I bought it as soon as I got home.

And that, kids, is how I meet you mother spent the weekend: in between math and a lot of waiting for low-resolution images to be rendered. I mean, A LOT of waiting. What an amazing weekend!

Honestly, it was an enlightening experience. The book is well written and a lot of fun to read. I’ve worked with ray tracers before, but a path tracer is a bit different. And, even when I follow most of the code examples from the book, implementing it on top of Crimild was a challenge on its own.

My implementation still needs a lot of work, but it produce pretty good images. Take a look:

As it is right now, the path tracer supports diffuse illumination for metallic, lambertian and dielectric materials. I ended up not implementing depth of field, since I’m not interested on that at the moment.

What’s next? Well, it does need some heavy optimizations, of course. The image at the top of this post took about 3.5 hours to render (no, that wasn’t a typo). The good news is that parallelizing the algorithm should’t require too much work. On the other hand, it would be great to render some actual triangles, not just spheres.

The other books in the series look promising and continue to improve the path tracer, so I’ll be giving them a look in the future. Check out Peter Shirley’s blog for more about his books.

As a side effect, being a math-based project, it allowed me to revisit Crimild’s math classes, making them even more robust. That’s pretty old code and somehow there’s always something to fix or improve.

Finally, if you need a good introduction to what a path tracer does, take a look at this excellent video from Disney’s labs

The code is in one of the examples projects. At the time of this writing I haven’t migrated the reusable code to the core library since I still need to do some review and cleanup, but that will have to do for now.